Promoting Excellence : Treatment Protocol for Cramps in ESRD

Renal Palliative Care Initiative: Treatment Protocol for Cramps in ESRD

This treatment protocol was created to address and manage symptom of cramping in patients with end stage renal disease.

Clinical Care Tools - Symptom Management

Renal Palliative Care Initiative
Baystate Medical Center
759 Chestnut Street S2669
Springfield, MA 01199

Michael Germain, M.D.
[email protected]

How the grantee used this instrument:
This protocol was made available at the clinics and renal unit nursing stations.

esrd, end stage renal disease, cramping, dialysis, kidney disease, symptom assessment

To use this tool:
You may print and copy this tool for your own use from this site. Please credit source.


  1. Ahmad, S, et al. (1990). "Multicenter trial of L-carnitine in maintenance hemodialysis
    patients. Clinical and biochemical effects." Kidney International, 38, 912.
  2. Canzanello, B.J. & Burkart, J. M. (1992). "Hemodialysis associated muscle cramps."
    Seminars in Dialysis, 5, 299.
  3. Daugirdas, J.T. (1994). "Acute hemodialysis prescription." J.T. Daugirdas & T.S. Ing (Eds.). Handbook of Dialysis (2nd ed., pp. 192-220). Boston: Little, Brown.
  4. Kaju, D. M. et al. (1976). "Prevention of muscle cramps in haemodialysis patients by quinine sulphate." Lancet, 2, 66.
  5. Sherman, R.A., et. al. (1982). Acute therapy of hemodialysis related muscle cramps.
    American Journal of Kidney Disease, 8, 287.

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Posted April 2004

Baystate Medical Center overview page

# BMC10, type:symptom_management

Promoting Excellence in End-of-Life Care was a national program of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation dedicated to long-term changes in health care institutions to substantially improve care for dying people and their families. Visit for more resources.

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